Day 1 :
Indiana University Schools of Dentistry and Medicine, USA
Time : 09:00-09:35
James E Jones is the Starkey Research Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Indiana University School of Dentistry and Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine. He is a Life Fellow at the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, Fellow of the American College of Dentists, Fellow of the International College of Dentists and a Member of the Pierre Fauchard Academy. He has published over 100 articles and book chapters in the dental, medical and education literature. He has presented over 150 continuing education courses in the United States, the Caribbean, Europe, Asia, South America and the Middle East on a variety of topics related to higher education.
The number of children with caries requiring general anesthesia to achieve comprehensive dental care and the demand for dentist anesthesiologists to provide ambulatory anesthesia for these patients is increasing. In 2010, the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry was developed. This Web-based database allows providers of ambulatory anesthesia to track patient demographics and various outcomes of procedures. This presentation reviews a secondary analysis of data collected in the registry over a 4-year period, 2010–2014. Of the 7041 cases reviewed, no cases resulted in serious complications, including death, anaphylaxis, aspiration, cardiovascular adverse events, or neurologic adverse events. Of the 7041 cases reviewed, 196 (3.0%) resulted in a predischarge or postdischarge adverse event. The predischarge adverse event occurring with the highest frequency was laryngospasm, occurring in 35 cases (0.50%). The postdischarge adverse event occurring with the highest frequency was nausea, reported by 99 patients (5.0%) for the 1991 patients reached for follow-up by the dentist anesthesiologist following their procedure. This analysis provides strong clinical outcomes data to support the safety of office-based anesthesia as performed by dentist anesthesiologists in the treatment of pediatric dental patients. Example of a typical patient procedure will be presented for discussion.
- Davis L B, Saxen M A, Jones J E, Mc Glothlin James D, Yepes J F and Sanders B J (2018) Effects of different levels of ambient oxygen in an oxygen-enriched surgical environment and production of surgical fires. Anesthesia Progress 65(1):3-8.
- Saxen M A, Urman R D, Gabriel R A, Yepes J F and Jones J E (2017) Comparison of anesthesia for dental/oral surgery by office-based dentist anesthesiologists versus operating room-based physician anesthesiologists. Anesthesia Progress 64(4):212-220.
- Spera A, Saxen M, Yepes J, Jones J and Sanders B (2017) Office-based anesthesia: safety and outcomes in pediatric dental patients. Anesthesia Progress 64(3):144-152.
- Olabi N, Jones J E, Saxen M and Sanders B J (2012) The use of office based sedation by board certified pediatric dentists practicing in the United States. Anesthesia Progress 59(1):12-17.
University of Basel, Switzerland
Keynote: Orofacial dysfunction: Effects on speech interdisciplinary aspects for disorders in the orofacial system (including open bite, speech, habits) in childhood and interaction between orofacial disorders and musculoskeletal systems
Time : 09:35-10:10
Susanne Codoni has her expertise in evaluation and passion in improving the health and wellbeing. Her open and contextual evaluation of working is based on integral method and creates new pathways for improving healthcare. She studied logopedics, hard of hearing and deaf pedagogy in medical education at the University of Zurich. She is the Head of Cantonal Logopedic Service of Basel City. Since, 2002 various education and training courses including craniosacral therapy, NLP trainer, myofunctional therapy, myofacial release and MCFKSc. She is a Research Assistant at the clinic for cranio maxillo facial surgery with focus on interdisciplinary orientation with cleft lip and palate at University Hospital Basel. Since, 2002 she has a private practice, in 2011 she elected as Doctor Honoris Causa by the Medical Faculty at the Univsertity of Basel. Since 2011 she is a member of the study board of the MAS in Cranio Facial Kinetic Science, Senior Consultant at the Department of Oral, Pine Facial Surgery.
Orofacial disfunctions affect speech, breathing, swallowing, posture and the tooth holding apparatus. The orofacial system is anatomically and neurophysiologically intense and highly complex networked in permanent interaction with other body systems and often gives an idea of the complexity. As a sensomotor unit it is in constant interaction with a variety of other parts of the body. An unphysiological posture can severely disturb the performance of the mouth area. Symptoms of a general posture weakness in the orthopaedic sense, which the orthodontist can recognize by the child's open mouth, strain his teeth development and promote infections due to lack of nasal breathing. Respiratory problems caused by hyperplastic tonsils or adenoid can lead to sleep disturbances and also speech or voice disturbances. Such disfunctions are not only the result, but also be the cause of tooth malpositions. Grabowski emphasizes the interactions between the orofacial area and the entire body tooth malpositions and are often the visible image of multi-layered dysfunctions. Many diseases originate from the mouth. There are many interconnections and are susceptible to disturb the balance between tooth position, jaw development, total body tension, mouth closure and tongue function and speech. Multicausal interactions show up the close connection between breathing, swallowing, speech (dis-) functions, whole body posture, trunk musculature, fascia and tongue function should be emphasized and spotlights to a major challenge for all doctors, dentists and therapists involved in the care. The everyday work shows that monocausal and locally starting therapy leads to unsatisfactory results. In order to achieve stable results in this field, interdisciplinary systemic access in diagnostics and therapy is a prerequisite. Speech and voice disorders with the participation of the orofacial system and corresponding malfunction occur in any stage of one’s life.
- Codoni S, et al., (2019) Funktionsorientierte Logopädie Springer Verlag Heidelberg.
- Codoni S, Indri I, von Jackoswki JA and Spirgi I (2016) Spezielle Manuelle Verfahren in der Behandlung von kraniomandsibulären Dysfunktionen – Praktizierte Interdisziplinarität, MKG Chirurg, Springer Verlag Heidelberg .167-175.
- Codoni S "Auf den Zahn gefühlt – "Das orofaziale System im Netzwerk der muskuloskelettalen Einheit", 283-228. in Böhme, H. / Kordaß, B. / Slominski, B. (Hrsg.) Das Dentale - Faszination des oralen Systems in Wissenschaft und Kultur - Quintessenz , 1. Auflage 2015.
- Codoni S (2015) Die Zunge im fachübergreifenden Arbeitsfeld, ZMK Zahnmedizin, Kultur, Wissenschaft 3:134-142.
- Codoni S (2014) Vielfältige Wechselwirkungen zwischen orofazialem System und dem ganzen Körper - Les divers interactions entre le système oro-facial et la totalité du corps. Physio active 3:33-40.
- Grabowski R, Kuhnt G and Stahl F (2007) Interrelacion Between Occlusal findings and Orofacial myofunctional status in primary and mixed Detition: Part III: Interrelation between malocclusions and Orofacial dysfunctions. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics /Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie 68(6):462-476.
- Dental Materials Science | Public Health Dentistry | Pediatric Dentistry | Endodontics | Orthodontics & Dental Implants | Periodontics | Holistic Dentistry | Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Preventive and Operative Dentistry | Oral Microbiology and Pathology | Dental Anesthesiology | Orofacial Myology
Location: Olimpica 1-30 Classroom
James E Jones
Indiana University Schools of Dentistry and Medicine, USA
University of Basel, Switzerland
Kinetic Orthodontic, Costa Rica
Time : 10:10-10:30
Norma Bastardo Villavicencio is dedicated to her private consultation as an orthodontist, obtained her Degree in Dentistry at the Central University of Venezuela and Orthodontist in the FACO of U. Véritas in Costa Rica as well as certificate and Master in Orthokinetic Philosophy from the Orthokinetic Training Center in Costa Rica and Cali, Colombia. She worked for four years as part of the staff of Orthodontists in Align Technology and for four years as teacher in the Post Degree of Orthodontics at FACO. U. Véritas. She has the expectation of improving patients’ quality of life, using cutting-edge technology and focusing on improving the diagnosis.
Improper body posture at early ages may cause malocclusions and dento-facial anomalies in the young patients. This bad body posture may have been caused for bad habits as respiratory problems, bad body posture habits, basic cranial anomalies, etc. These diseases cause changes in the growth and development of the jaws and change the position of the cervical spine as an adaptation provoking cranio-cervical anteposition or cranio-cervical lateral flexion. As therapist, we need to focus our interest in helping to improve breathing and right position of the head respect to body considering that the lower jaw and cranio-masticatory system plays a very important role in the permeability of airways. First, we must make a good diagnosis, through the suite of softwares that are used in the Orthokinetic Philosophy and all instruments such as craniometric analyzers, you can determine and measure the facial asymmetries and design the Orthokinetic splint, who is going to compensate all these asymmetries through the acrylic and it places the jaw in a therapeutic position, where the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) plays a crucial role because the TMJ is a mechanical and neural center of the body. As a result, after using the Orthokinetic splint, we see how it improves breathing and how it changes the position of the cervical spine improving the posture waiting for a correct grown process in the young patients.
1. Aguilar Moreno NA, Taboada Aranza, O. Frequency of Mal-occlusions and their association with body posture problems in a school population in the State of Mexico. Medical Bulletin of the Children's Hospital of Mexico 70 (5), 354-371,2013.
2. Cárdenas, JM, Flores JC, Gutiérrez Cantú FJ, Cárdenas GM, Sánchez Meraz W y Guerrero Barrera AL. Study of the Cervical Skull Position in patients with Skeletal Classes II and III. Int J Morphol, 33 (2): 415-419, 2015.
3. Tatis, Diego. Tatis Cephalometric Analysis for panoramic radiography. Tame Editores. 3 a ed; Colombia 2011.
4. Tatis, Diego. Photometric Analysis of Tatis. Tame Editores. 1 a ed; Colombia 2014.
5. Tatis, Diego. PRE-SET BOW. Orthokinética Vision. Tames Editores. 1 a ed; Colombia 2007.
Aleksandar Dimkov is an Associate Professor and President of Macedonian Association of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry. In 1994, he received his DMD from the SS. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia and in 2001 he completed a Residency in Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry from the St. Panteleimon University Dental Clinical Center in Skopje. In 2003, he obtained his MSc and in 2011 he received his PhD in the field of pediatric and preventive dentistry from the same University. He is Associate Professor at the SS. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje (St. Panteleimon University Dental Clinical Center/Faculty of Dental Medicine, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry). At the current moment, he is President of the Macedonian Association of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry. He has published more than 100 national and international publications and scientific articles, chapters and books in the field of pediatric and preventive dentistry as well as in the field of dental materials and microbiology in dentistry. He is also a co-author of the National Strategic Documents for Dentistry.
Background: The antibacterial activity of conventional glass ionomer cement against three different microorganism strains alone and following incorporation of 1%, 2% and 3% benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride was evaluated.
Methods: The agar diffusion method was used to determine the inhibitory effect of the conventional glass ionomer cement ChemFlex on streptococcus mutans, lactobacillus casei and actinomyces viscosus. Bacterial strains were inoculated into BHIB and incubated in an anaerobic atmosphere (37°C). From the bacteria grown in the liquid medium, the density of the inoculum was set to be equivalent to McFarland 2 standard. In Shaedler agar, 350 uL of the bacterial suspension were equally spread. Specimens (4 mm - 96 mm) were prepared from the cement with and without addition of 1%, 2% and 3% benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride. The inhibition zones were determined after 48 h, after 7 days and after 21 days of incubation.
Results: The glass ionomer cements with no antimicrobial compounds incorporated either form very small inhibition zones or form no zones at all. The combination ChemFlex + Benzalkonium Chloride has the best effect on the three analyzed bacteria. The Benzalkonium Chloride antibacterial compound has a stronger antibacterial effect than Cetylpyridinium Chloride.
Conclusions: Glass ionomer cements can potentially be used as a medium for slow release of active antimicrobial components, and that have the potential to improve clinical outcomes of the cements.
- Gjorgievska E, Nicholson J W, Coleman N J, Booth S, Dimkov A and Hurt A (2017) Component release and mechanical properties of endodontic sealers following incorporation of antimicrobial agents. BioMed Research International 1:1-6.
- Dimkov A, Gjorgievska E, Stevanovic M and Nicholson W J (2016) Studies on the incorporation of benzalkonium chloride and cetyl pyridinium chloride antimicrobial agents into glass-ionomer dental cements. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 7(3):920-25.
- Dimkov A and Nicholson W J (2016) Releasing of fluoride ions from conventional glass-ionomer cements incorporated with antimicrobial agents. Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary 3(3):267-87.
- Dimkov A, Gjorgievska E, Nicholson J W and Kaftandzieva A (2016) Antibacterial effects of conventional glass ionomer cement. Bratisl Med J. 117(1):31-35.
National University of the Northeast, Argentina
Mirna Mabel Kazmer is a Paediatric Dentist graduated from Universidad Nacional del Nordeste and works in a private clinic in Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina. She is currently a Member of the Argentinian Dental Association for Children and the Argentinian Dental Society for Babies. She is also a Lecturer, Co-Creator of the Intensive Odontopaediatric Course called Formando Expertos (Training Experts) and Coordinator of the National Prevention Commission. She carries out voluntary community service activities to promote preventive dental care. Her passion is driven by the bonds which she builds with her patients from several sociocultural backgrounds.
Introduction: This experience is a part of the activities developed in a private practice in the urban area of the city of Resistencia, Chaco and also the extension tasks in oral prevention in a rural area called Impenetrable Chaqueño motivated by the scarce data about prevalence of early childhood caries, sweets consumption and oral hygiene habits in children from 0 to 5 years from the Wichi ethnic group.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of early childhood caries and to promote oral hygiene habits in children, parents and teachers.
Situation Analysis: Through non-invasive oral examination of children aged 0 to 5 years it was observed that the great majority had caries lesions in the anterior superior teeth and what is worse in adults ignored about oral hygiene, brushing techniques and etiological factors, associated with cultural customs.
Intervention Strategies: They were implemented in two phases which are diagnosis and preventive educational strategies. In diagnosis personal data, oral status of the four anterior anterosuperior teeth were registered in terms of carbohydrates, type, frequency and sugar moments, record of the child and family brushing and last dental consultation and in phase 2 preventive-educational strategies the educational workshops were carried out in which dental brushing techniques were taught. Parents and the entire education community participated in the workshops with the contribution of the auxiliary teachers (ADA) and bilingual teachers.
Results: Working with the population objective demonstrated the importance of cultural interrelation and the promotion of dental care and prevention in early childhood.
1. Oral Health Polices and Clinical Guidelines. Pediatric Dentistry 2003: 25.
2. Policy on early childhood caries (ECC): classifications, consequences and preventive strategies. Pediatr Dent. 40(3):2008-2009.
3.AlonsoN M J, Karakowsky L Caries de la infancia temprana Perinatol Reprod Hum 2009; 23 (2):90-97.
4. Berkowitz R J (2006) Mutans streptococci: acquisition and transmission. Pediatric Dent; 28(2):106-109.
National University of Cordoba, Argentina
Ana Ofelia Ivars is a Paediatric Dentist completed her Graduation from Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, works in a private clinic in Barranqueras, a harbour city in Chaco, Argentina. She has twenty five years’ of experience in the dental prevention field as Coordinator of the National Commission of Prevention. She is a Lecturer and Co-Creator of the Intensive Odonto Paediatric Course called Formando Experts (“Training Experts”) committed to providing the highest quality care for community people and promotes oral prevention from pregnancy.
Background: Medical specialties have paid little attention to the teenage stage, including dentistry. If we add the teen pregnancy to these trends due to economic, social or cultural circumstances, the results are young women with a high prevalence of caries, periodontal disease and early tooth loss.
Objective: To detect teenagers at risk through different educational institutions such as churches, health centres, sports clubs, etc.
Situation analysis: The field study revealed a worrying number of adolescents who drop out of school or job due to pregnancy at a young age.
Intervention strategies: Three different levels of prevention were established and primary prevention measures intended to prevent teenage pregnancy. Secondary prevention measures were adopted when there was evidence of an on-going pregnancy. Tertiary prevention measures were taken to promote school reinsertion and reintegration into the labour market.
Results: Teachers, doctors, dentists, obstetricians, physical therapists, neonatologists and paediatricians worked in a multi and interdisciplinary way in order to educate and promote healthy living and to avoid risk situations in this particular age group.
Riyadh Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia
Arwa AlSayed is a consultant in Periodontics and implant dentistry. She was the chairman and the program director of the Saudi fellowship Program in Implant Dentistry for the last eight years. Also, she is the head of the assessment and exam committee for the Periodontology and the Implant postgraduate programs. She has experience with more than 50,000 implants placed with various procedures of bone and soft tissue augmentation.
After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone undergoes a remodeling process, which leads to horizontal and vertical bone loss. The resorption processes complicate dental rehabilitation, particularly in connection with implants placement. Various methods of guided bone regeneration (GBR) have been described to retain the original dimension of the bone after tooth extraction. Most procedures use filler materials and membranes to support the buccal plate and soft tissue, to stabilize the coagulum and to prevent epithelial ingrowth. It has been suggested that resorption of the buccal bone can be avoided by leaving a buccal root segment (Root-Shield Technique) in place, because the biological integrity of the buccal periodontium (bundle bone) remains untouched. This method has been described in connection with immediate implant placement in the treatment of missing teeth in the esthetic zone. This presentation describes clinical case in which the Root Shield technique was applied as part of immediate implant placement in the anterior upper canine area. It was demonstrated that the bone was clinically preserved with this technique for up to seven years follow up. Possibilities and limitations will be discussed and directions for future research will be disclosed.
- Gharpure A., et al. (2017): Current Evidence on the Socket-Shield Technique: A Systematic Review, Journal of Oral Implantology, XLIII (5): 395-403.
- Pour RS., et al. (2017): Clinical Benefits of the Immediate Implant Socket Shield Technique, 29(2): 93-101.
- Baumer D., et al. (2015): The Socket-Shield Technique: First histological, Clinical, and Volumetrical Observations after Separation of the Buccal Tooth Segment – A Pilot Study, 17(1): 71-82.
- Mitsias ME., et al. (2015): A Step-by-Step Description of PDL-Mediated Ridge Preservation for Immediate Implant Rehabilitation in The Esthetic Region, 35(6):835-841.
- Chu S., et al. (2014): A Novel Prosthetic Device and Method for Guided Tissue Preservation of Immediate Post-extraction Socket Implants, 34(9): s9-s17.
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia
Abeer A Alrumyyan has her expertise in evaluation and passion in improving the dental and oral health. She work as a Consultant at Cental Center in King Abudulaziz Medical city since 2002, she is a Lecturer and Clinical Instructors for students in KAU-HS College of Dentistry. She is a member in the committee of public health and research program for the residents in all dental speciality. She is a member in Saudi Dental Society and American Dental Association. She has an important role for both academic and professional values of the organization where she works.
The demand for the dentists to achieve excellence in aesthetics and function has driven modern advances in materials and restore fabrication. However, patient requests for more aesthetic and biologically safe materials that have led to an increased demand for metal free restorations in anterior area. The following case presentation illustrates a successful aesthetic and functional application of porcelain fused metal crowns and fixed partial denture. Full ceramic crowns with opaque cores are superior in strength, with good aesthetics. When restoring anterior teeth with these crowns, it is advisable to end the margin sub gingivally as there could be a mismatch in shade between the tooth margin and the restoration. It is difficult to make direct comparisons from cited studies to advance a clear argument in support of one treatment modality. However, it is judged that a conventional endodontic retreatment approach is the most appropriate in the first instance, providing access to the root canal is possible. This does not preclude a subsequent surgical approach. Teeth that are permanently restored soon after retreatment are more successful than those which are not. There are significant challenges in setting up prospective research studies to directly address the problem of the failed root filing. With the improvement in materials, careful case selection and application of the restorative techniques, posterior composites placed under appropriate conditions and monitored routinely can be expected to last 10 years or longer. Invaded the biologic width during tooth preparation can result in chronic inflammation, loss of alveolar bone, recession and pocket formation. The chronic inflammation compromises both aesthetic and periodental health. In order to keep margins of restoration supragingivally the distance from marginal bone to margins of restoration should not be less than 3 mm. Ideally the margins of restoration should be supragingivally or in the same level as marginal gingiva. When the margins of restoration are prepared subgingivally, the distance from marginal gingiva to margins of restoration should not be more than 0.7 mm. To continue dental treatment in operated area is recommended not earlier than in 4 weeks, and making restorations in esthetical area not earlier than in 6 weeks. Cast metal post-and-core foundations have a long history of successful use due to their superior physical properties. Based on these 3-year outcomes, root canal treatment is considered a reliable treatment in practice routine under the conditions of the German national health insurance system suitable to salvage most of the affected teeth. A5-year retrospective study of fixed partial dentures showed that fifty-eight (58.6%) of the FPDs were successes requiring no intervention.
- Functional and Esthetic Rehabilitation With Crowns And Fixed Partial Dentures; case report: abeer alrumayyan, Internet Journal Of Advanced Research (IJAR-24450).
- Evaluating Quality Of Life With Patients With Varicose Vein; pilot cross sectional study. abeer alrumayyan, Internet Journal Of Advanced Research (IJAR-24453).
- Occupational Hazard: Needle Stick Injury Among Health Care Workers ; abeer alrumayyan, Internet Journal Of Advanced Research (IJAR-24456).
Beni Suef University, Egypt
Mohammed Omran Hamed Mehesen has his expertise in evaluation and management of atrophic posterior maxillary area for implant placement. His conservative approach based on osteotome mediated sinus floor elevation (with or without grafting) with simultaneous implant placement.
Statement of the Problem: After extraction of posterior maxillary teeth, the base of the maxillary sinus tends to expand inferiorly by a process called pneumatization decreasing the alveolar bone height. Clinical reports suggest that dental implants placed in the maxilla (especially in the posterior area) have lower survival rates than those in the mandible. Several treatment options have been utilized in the posterior maxilla to overcome the problem of inadequate bone quantity, such as on lay augmentation of the alveolar crest, Le Forte (I) osteotomy with an interpositional bone graft, lateral approach sinus augmentation or osteotome sinus augmentation. The osteotome sinus floor elevation procedure (OSFE), introduced by summers is less invasive, less time consuming and reduces postoperative discomfort to the patient. The purpose of this study is to evaluate osteotome sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement for management of atrophic posterior maxillary area.
Methodology: Dental implants were placed simultaneously with osteotome sinus floor elevation in the posterior maxillary area.
Findings: Endosinus bone gain around the tip of the implant. In this study the osteotome sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement was decreased over all with time for abutment placement and prosthetic functional loading.
- Mohammed Omran, et al. Evaluation of platelet-rich fibrin in osteotome sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement. E.D.J. 59(4).
Alfarabi Dental College, Saudi Arabia
Ossama Alkhatib had completed his Graduation from Dental School-Damascus University in 1985 and started periodontal specialization after finishing Diploma in 1988, Master in 1993, he has completed his PhD in Periodontology at Damascus University and Postdoctoral studies Board from Syria and he is member of AAP (1277), he is also the course Director of Periodontology, Assisting. Prof. at Alfarabi Dental College in Jeddah, KSA. He has published more than 10 papers in different journals and has been serving as an Educational Board Member of Alfarabi Dental College. He is the external doctor at Dental School, Marqwatte University, Wi, USA. He is the Head of the Periodontal Department Dental School at Syrian Private University.
The concepts of dental therapy are converted to respond aesthetic patient requests and digital smile. Tissue preservation becomes the main aim of new aesthetic dentistry for that the periodontal treatment is requested for many complicated cases because a lot of risk factors which are responsible locally and systemically are involved in the periodontal treatment and when given to the patient he should be supported by extended preventive recalls of periodontal maintenance care. The view of periodontal diseases has been becoming more clearness and understanding recently the efforts spent to put a new periodontal classification which will give us different concepts about same periodontal diseases we faced before.
1. Review of the Level of Awareness’ Towards Occupational Injury among Periodontal Staff at Selected Dental Clinics, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), vol. 5 Issue 12, Dec. 2016.
2. Critical Reviews of Smoking and Periodontal Disease at Selected Dental Clinics, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), vol. 5 Issue 11, Nov. 2016.
3. Research: Important of Salivary Biomarkers in the Detection of Oral Cancer (Review Article), the Journal of Dentist, 2017, 5, 59-64.
4. Research: Environmental Risk Factor (Smoking) Affects Oral-Periodontal Diseases. The Journal of EC RONICON-Dental Science 18/3/2019.
Riyadh Elm University, Saudi Arabia
Yahya Jaber AlShahrani is a Registrar Orthodontist. He is holding a Master Degree in Dental Sciences (MSc) and Senior Resident in the Saudi board for orthodontic and maxillofacial orthopedic. He is a Speaker and Presenter in multiple national and international conferences inside and outside Saudi Arabia. He is a member in multiple international societies and active member in the Saudi Dental Society and active member and one of the founding members of the Saudi Orthodontic Society.
Introduction: The optimal arrangement of maxillary and mandibular teeth is a subject of great concern to dentists and their patients. In addition to tooth size, shape, inclination, torque and alignment, how teeth fit and function together is defined as a disproportion among the sizes of individual teeth. In order to achieve a good occlusion with the correct over bite and over jet, the maxillary and mandibular teeth must be proportional in size.
Methodology: A review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed and EBSCO databases. Literature was screened using the key words like tooth size discrepancy, bolton ratio and orthodontic.
Conclusion: Bolton ratio is the missing link between orthodontics and aesthetic dentistry. Variation in the size and shape of teeth are predominantly and genetically determined. Environmental factors may have an effect on tooth development. Anomaly in the size of the upper lateral incisors is the most common cause of the TSD but variation in premolars or other teeth may be present. The challenge is to use all the parameters available by the different specialties of dentistry and apply these concepts in each treated case. It is not a single detail that defines excellence but it is the sum of many.
Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Faisal Ali M AlQhtani is a Registrar Pediatric Dentist. He holds a Master Degree in Dental Sciences (MSc) and Senior Resident in the Saudi board for Paediatric Dentistry. He is a speaker and presenter in multiple national and international conferences and workshops inside and outside Saudi Arabia and with high interest in public awareness through TV live podcasting and social media and one of the winners in the King Khalid University first international dental conference poster presentations competition. He is a Member in multiple international societies and active member in the Saudi Dental Society and active member and one of the founding members of the Saudi Society of Pediatric Dentistry.
Individuals with children may experience stress due to a number of factors; in fact, parenting itself may be considered a stressful life event. Stress in parents affects their behaviours and has negative effects on their children. Stressed parents are likely to respond negatively to the stress in their child. Within the context of the family stress, parenting stress has been divided into stress of the child, which refers to those qualities in the child that make it difficult and stressful for the parent to fulfil their parental roles in providing child’s needs. Parental behaviour is as important as children’s anxiety in the way fasting instructions are adhered to same day surgery situations. It was shown that mothers who did not comply with fasting requirements perceived the procedure as more threatening and were more anxious and had lower conscientiousness levels. Additionally, mother's anxiety prior to surgery mediated the association between mothers' threat perception and compliance. Numerous scales and questionnaires have been developed to assess dental fear and anxiety. Despite variations in prevalence rates, other findings related to dental fear and anxiety are mostly in line with each other. The lecture will also compare the parental anxiety between parents who get chair side treatment with or without using nitrous oxide to the parental anxiety felt by them whom get there treatment under general anesthesia.
University of São Paulo, Brazil
Jose Edgar Valdivia is an endodontic specialist with emphasis and line of research on restoration of endodontically treated teeth. He proposes the preparation and simultaneous integration of restorative endodontics with concepts applied to the clinic DDS, MSc and a PhD student in the Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry and University of São Paulo, Brazil. He is a Professor of the Post Graduate Courses in Endodontics of the Association Paulista of Dental Surgeons, São Paulo, Brazil. Apart from these he is also a Clinical and Scientific Speaker of Superdont, São Paulo, Brazil.
The integrated approach of endodontic and restorative procedures of dental elements allow for the reincorporation of the endodontically treated tooth to its function in the stomatognathic system. Scientific literatures understand that a tooth that has been treated endodontically has become weakened due to changes that occur in its structure during this procedure. These teeth undergo modification in its architecture and morphology due to great loss of dental structure due to caries, preparation and cavity extension. This therefore makes the endodontically treated tooth more friable. Thus, simultaneous crown-root shielding seeks to recover the structural resistance of the endodontically treated tooth. This chapter will discuss endo-restorative planning, simultaneous preparation of the canal and post space preparation for intraradicular posts, apical obturation, cementation of posts and final restoration or preparation of the prosthetic crown. Furthermore, we will address factors that have a direct influence on the success of restorative procedures of endodontically treated teeth such as aspects of root dentin, ultrasonic post space preparation with minimum dentin wear, post adaptation to dentin walls, selection and types of current intra-radicular posts and current restorative materials.
- Valdivia J E, Nabeshima C K and Machado M E L (2018) Concept of simultaneous crown-root shielding in endodontics. Oral Health and Dentistry 2(5):456-464.
- Nabeshima, Cleber Keiti, Valdivia, José Edgar, Caballero-Flores, Hector, Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias, Machado and Manoel Eduardo de Lima (2018) Immunohistological study of the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on the angiogenesis of mature root canals in rat molars. Journal of Applied Oral Science 26:e20170437.
- Valdivia J E and Machado M E L (2017) Simultaneous crown root shielding in endodontics: from root preparation to coronary restoration. Dental Press Endod. 7(1):32-42.
Minia University, Egypt
Abdullah Atef Hammuda is currently working as a Lecturer in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry at Minia University. He does research in oral and maxillofacial surgery, implantology and medical technology. He has a wide experience in dental implantology practice and education. He directed and participated as a trainer in many educational events in the field of implantology and surgery.
Edentulous or partially edentulous patients can present a various forms of malocclusion. Skeletal malocclusion still represents a challenging issue in a clinical practice. Recognition of patients needs in addition to functional and esthetic considerations are necessary. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach in treatment planning that involved oral and maxillofacial surgeons, prosthodontists and orthodontists is often necessary to ensure accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments. In this presentation the cases with a complex clinical case will be presented considering different surgical techniques to correct skeletal discrepancies in addition to prosthodontic and orthodontic management.
- A Hammuda, MS Hamed and EA Elsharrawy (2013) Use of ozone in temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis, clinical study. Journal of American Science 9(7):508-513.
- Abdullah Atef Hammuda, Mohamed Said Hamed, Eman Abdelhaleim Elsharrawy and Mohammed Ahmed Elsholkamy (2013) Validity of viscosupplementation with arthrocentesis in management of temporomandibular joint internal derangement. Journal of American Science 9(8).
Technion Institute of Technology, Israel
Mostafa Somri completed his Doctor of Medicine and Surgery from University of Padova School of Medicine, Padova, Italy in the year 1984. In 1998, he completed his Graduation in Traditional Chinese Medicine from Bar- Ilan University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. He was the Head of Pediatric Anesthesia Unit, Anesthesia Department, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Technion, Israel. He obtained the fellowship for Pediatric Anesthesia and Intensive Care at Cook–Fort Worth Children Medical Center, Texas, USA. He also obtained the fellowship from Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA. He was a Consultant of Anesthesiologist and Sedation of the Anesthesia Department, Bnai-Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. He is the Director of the Anesthesia Department, Bnai-Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. He is the Assistant Professor at Faculty of Medicine Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. His area of research interest includes Peri operative pain management and surgical stress response measurement.
Surgical trauma produces a stress reflex and the central with peripheral nervous system elicit neuroendocrine response which begins at the onset of the surgery and continues several days post-operative. Pain is involved in a series of neurochemical events collectively known as nociception, consisting of four physiologic processes like transduction, transmission, modulation and perception. Experimental data demonstrated that various anti-nociceptive analgesic techniques applied before injury was more effective in reducing post-injury pain as compared with administration after injury. This approach has been defined as pre-emptive analgesia. It is defined as treatment that starts before surgery and prevents the establishment of central sensitization caused by incisional and inflammatory injuries. It focuses on the timing of administration of analgesic medication or technique, whereas the protective analgesia approach is not time related and may not be initiated before surgery and pain is reduced relative to another treatment or placebo. Post-operative pain management in pediatric and adult populations is a challenge, despite the development of new drugs and techniques. In our studies which are comparing the effect of intravenous paracetamol as pre-emptive to protective analgesia in a pediatric dental setting. The results demonstrated that administration of intravenous paracetamol pre-emptively provided lower pain scores and decreased percentage of children required pain relief and less amount of post-operative opioids compared to protective administration. Another work investigated the effect of preoperative Etoricoxib within a protective multimodal analgesic regimen with respect to pain control following open hernia repair in adults. The conclusion was that preoperative Rofecoxib administration combined with spinal anesthesia is superior to spinal alone in controlling pain after inguinal hernia repair.
- Somri M, Gaitini L, Matter I, Hawash N, Falcuci O, Garcia Fornari G, Charco Mora P, Swaid F and Vaida S (2018) A comparison between the supreme laryngeal mask airway and the laryngeal tube suction during spontaneous ventilation: a randomized prospective study. Journal of Anesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 34:182-7.
- Somri M, Hawash N, Hadjittofi C, Sukhotnic I, Sabbah M, Swaid F, Shalash H and Matter I (2018) Post-operative outcomes in the pyloromyotomy procedure under spinal anaesthesia: A retrospective study in 100 cases. Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica 69:31-37.
- Kharouba J, Hawash N, Peretz B, Blumer S, Srour Y, Nassar M, Sabbah M, Safadi A, Khorev A and Somri M (2018) Effect of intravenous paracetamol as pre-emptive compared to preventive analgesia in a paediatric dental setting: a prospective randomized study. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 28:83-91.
University of Benghazi, Libya
Mahfud Farage Mohamed is a Consultant in Orthodontics and Research in the Field of Dentistry. He is interested in the research and biostatistics. He teaches orthodontics, biostatistics and research methodology for undergraduate and postgraduates. He is posted as Vice Dean for scientific and postgraduate studies in the faculty.
Introduction: Radiographic Mandibular Indices serve as easy and relatively cheap tools for evaluating bone mineralization.
Objectives: To examine the effect of age and gender on three mandibular indices i.e., the panoramic mandibular index (PMI), the mandibular ratio (MR) and the mandibular cortical index (MCI) among Libyan population.
Methods The three indices were measured on 318 digital (OPGs) of adult humans (157 male, 161 females). The sample was divided into six age groups (from 18-25yrs. through 56-65 years). The measurements were analyzed for interactions with age and sex, using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Studies) software version no. 22. The tests employed were two way ANOVA, the unpaired T-test and chi-square test.
Results: The mean PMI fluctuated between 0.37 SD 0.012 and 0.38 SD 0.012.among the six age groups. One-way ANOVA statistical test revealed no significance of age on PMI. On the other hand gender variation has effect on PMI, since independent sample t-test disclosed that the difference between the male and female PMI means statistically significant. ANOVA test showed that the means of MR among age groups showed a negative correlation i.e., MR mean declined from 3.01 in 18-25 age group to 2.7 in 55-65 age group. In contrary, the gender showed no effect on MR according two sample t-tests at p>0.05. In regards with MCI, statistical analysis showed that it affected by age that is C1 was decreasing by age while C2 and C3 were increased by age. Using chi square test the result indicated that there is a significant difference among the different age group and the two genders in MCI readings.
Conclusion: PMI was influenced significantly by age but minimally by the gender. MR is not affected by gender but has a negative correlation with age. MCI is affected by both age and gender.
- Mahfud F Mohamed, Abbadi A El-Kadi and Nabeel D Abo-Shamaa (2013) Root Resprotion In Upper Incisors Related To En-Mass Retraction And Intrusion Using Miniscrews. Cario Den J.; 29:315-21.
- Mahfud F Mohamed (2013) Treatment of Gummy Smile Patients By Using Miniscrews Anchorage. E-Poster in the 13th annual meeting of American Association of Orthodontics (AAO).
- Mahfud F. Mohmed. Gummy smile treatment, new and innovative approaches. Oral presentation in 11th annual meeting of Arab Orthodontic Society. 31-Oct. to 4-Nov. 2013, Beirut-Lebanon.
- Mahfud F Mohamed (2014) Effect Of En-mass Retraction And Intrusion Using Miniscrews On Root Resroption Of Upper Incisors; A Prospective Study Using Cone Beam CT. E-Poster in the 14th annual meeting of American Association of Orthodontics AAO.
- Mahfud F Mohamed and Maher A (2016) Histomorphometric And Biomechanical Analyses Of Self-Drilling Orthodontic Temporary Anchorage Devices (Tads), An Experimental Study presented in the 3rd scientific day of the faculty of dentistry University of Benghazi 6-7 February.
- Mahfud F Mohamed (2016) A Comparative Study Of Alveolar & Basal Bone Density Of Human Maxilla And Mandible Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography CBCT. Oral presentation in the 1st annual meeting of the Libyan section of the international association for dental research. Dec. 26-27, , Benghazi-Libya.
Rabab Al-Sabbagh is currently working as a Professor in Hama University in Syria. She completed her PhD and Masters in Orthodontics in Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. She published lots of research works and wrote number of books, organized several conferences and workshops, and supervised several masters & PhD students. She is interested in the area of orthodontics.
Background: This study aimed to compare superelastic and heat activated nickel titanium orthodontic wires surface morphology and potential release of nickel ions following exposure to oral environment conditions.
Methods: Twenty four 20 mm length distal cuts of superelastic (NiTi force 1) and Twenty four 20 mm length distal cuts of heat activated (Therma – Ti lite) nickel titanium wires (American orthodontics, Sheboygan, WL, USA) were divided into two equal groups: 12 wire segments passively exposed to oral environment for one month. Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to analyze surface morphology of the wires which were immersed in artificial saliva for one month to determine potential nickel ions' release by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: Heat activated nickel titanium (NiTi) was rougher than superelastic wires and both types of wires released almost the same amount of Ni ions. After clinical exposure more surface roughness was recorded for superelastic NiTi wires and heat activated NiTi wires. However, retrieved superelastic NiTi wires released less Ni ions in artificial saliva after clinical exposure and the same result was recorded regarding heat activated wires.
Conclusions: Both types of NiTi wires were obviously affected by oral environment conditions and their surface roughness significantly increased while the amount of the released Ni ions significantly declined.
Aga Khan University and Hospital, Pakistan
Umair Shoukat is a designated Post Graduate Trainee in the Department of Orthodontics at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi Pakistan. He has done his Bachelors in Dentistry from Fatima Jinnah Dental College in 2015. He has received distinctions in different subjects and honored with five gold medals from University of Karachi. He is currently working on various research projects including a randomized controlled trial targeting various motivational methods in orthodontic patients to improve their compliance which is been funded by the university research grant. His research work is under review of various international journals. He is interested to work in the area of orthodontics.
Introduction: Class II malocclusion treatment may involve functional appliance therapy or extractions of teeth. The objectives of this study were to compare smile esthetics between these groups by measuring various smile variables and the esthetic perceptions by three panels of raters.
Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was performed with 66 patients equally divided into functional appliance (FA) and upper first premolars extraction (PME) groups. Eight smile variables were measured on post-treatment photographs using photoshop software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, Calif). 10 laypersons, general dentists and orthodontic residents performed subjective evaluations of smiles using visual analog scale. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to compare smile variables between groups. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare esthetic scores (ES) among raters. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine smile variables associated with ES.
Results: Statistically significant results found for arch form index (AFI) (p < 0.001), buccal corridor ratio (BCR) (p = 0.046) and visible dentition width ratio (VDWR) (p = 0.019) between PME and FA groups. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in ES among raters for PME (p = 0.004) and FA (p < 0.001) groups. Simple linear regression showed significant associations of ES with age (p = 0.002), VDW (p = 0.023), and BCR (p = 0.006). Multiple linear regression analysis showed age (p = 0.008) and VDWR (p = 0.021) were significantly associated with ES.
Conclusions: AFI, BCR and VDWR were higher in PME group. Panel of raters gave greater ES for the FA group.
Imam Abdurahman Bin Faisal University, KSA and Mansoura University, Egypt
Essam Nassar received his BDS in 1992 from Mansoura University in Mansoura, Egypt and his master in orthodontics in 1998 from Mansoura University. He accomplished his Ph. D thesis at the University of Illinois, Chicago, USA and earned his Ph. D from Mansoura University. He was appointed as assistant professor of orthodontics at Mansoura University in 2011. Currently he is an associate professor at the preventive dental sciences department, Imam Abdurrahman bin Faisal University, KSA. He participated in many national and international meetings and has more than 13 scientific publications.
Enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets is a common sequel of fixed orthodontic treatment. White spot lesions can developed within 4 weeks of orthodontic treatment with a 72.9% to 75.6% prevalence rates among orthodontic patients. Researches advocated use of antibacterial agents such as fluoride, chlorhexidine and cetylpiridinium chloride to prevent white spot lesion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a fluoride releasing light cured resin coat on the mineralization and survival rate of orthodontic brackets. Methodology: Metal brackets (n=360) were bonded to the teeth mesial to the first molars in 20 patients. A split-mouth design was used to randomly allocate diagonally opposite quadrants and Ortho-Choice Ortho-Coat was applied to half of the teeth after bonding. The bracket bond survival rate was assessed afterwards for a period of 12 months. Enamel mineralization was evaluated using Laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent). Findings: Ortho-Coat significantly reduced enamel demineralization. No significant difference was found in bracket bond survival rates, with and without application of Ortho-Coat. The highest survival rates were recorded on incisors (96.2% with coat and 94.6% without a coat). The lowest survival rates were recorded on premolars (91.7% with coat and 88.3% without a coat). Clinical Significance: Ortho-Coat effectively prevents enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets over a 12-month period, but it has no pronounced effects on enhancing the bracket bond survival rate.
Dr.Fares Kablan Oral and Maxillofacial Center, Israel
Time : 17:15-17:35
Abir Abu Subeh worked as Dentist in Dr.Fares Kablan Oral and Maxillofacial Center, Israel.
Purpose: Autogenous bone still considered the gold standard in bone augmentations prior to implants insertion in atrophic ridges. However if large amounts of bone grafts are needed to augment multiple edentulous atrophic segments, extraoral donor sites may be mandatory. The aim of this report is to introduce the Fares Wedge Technique, as a new bone augmentation method that can augment multiple edentulous ridges with intraoral cortical bone grafts.
Methods: Patients with moderate to severe ridge atrophy in different regions of the jaws were treated over 6-years period with the wedge technique(WT). Patients received panorex immediately after the surgery, and they were examined clinically and radiographically (periapical) every 2 weeks. At 4 months, computed tomography was performed to evaluate the bone gain. Reentry was performed after 4 to 5 months to evaluate the new bone volume and quality and to insert implants. At this stage specimens for histologic examination were also obtained.
Results: 39 augmentation site in 22 patients (15 women, 7 men : mean age 47 years) were followed 12 to 52 months The healing process was uneventful, with minimal morbidity. The success rate was 95%, the bone gain average was 3-6 mm vertically and 3-9 mm horizontally. In two patients the graft was partially exposed and treated with shaving and rounding the exposed wedges, but the augmentations were saved. In one case the majority of the bone graft was lost. At 38 sites the patients had successfully received 113 implants.
Conclusions: wedge technique can augment multiple segments of atrophic
ridges with small amount of autogenic graft. The bone volume that achieved was satisfying, especially that the majority of the augmented areas were at posterior mandibular defects.
1- Chiapasco M. Casentini P, Zaniboni M. Bone augmentation procedures in implant dentistry. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 24. Suppl (2009): 237-259.
2- Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. The efficacy of various bone augmentation procedures for dental implants: A Cochrane systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 21 (2006): 696-710.
3- Rabelo GD, de Paula PM, Rocha FS, et al. Retrospective study of bone grafting procedures before implants placement. Implant Dent 19.4 (2010): 342-50.
4- Haggerty CJ, Vogel CJ. Fisher GR. Simple bone augmentation for alveolar ridge defects. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin N Am 27(2015): 203-226.
5- Boyne PJ, Herdford AS. An algorithm for reconstruction of alveolar defects before implant placement. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 13 (2001): 533-541.
University of Campinas, Brazil
Title: Evaluation of dental demineralization around orthodontic brackets by means of laser fluorescence
Time : 17:35-17:50
Paulo Roberto A Nouer is graduated in Dentistry - Campinas State University FOP-UNICAMP - Brazil (1985) and PhD. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro UFRJ - Brazil (1995). Post graduated in Orthodontics - New York University - USA (1995/1996) and Post-Doctoring in Orthodontics at FOP-UNICAMP (2003). From 2006 to 2010 was Visiting Research Professor at FOP-UNICAMP. At present he is Professor - São Leopoldo Mandic College of Dentistry - Brazil - teaches in continuing education program in Orthodontics, Master and Post-Doctoring programs. He has experience in Orthodontics focusing on: Malocclusion, Treatment; Cephalometrics; Dental Materials in Orthodontics; Lasers and Biomechanics.
The use of laser in orthodontics has been a reality for some years in clinical practice and has been researched in order to achieve maximum dental hygiene control during the entire period of orthodontic treatment. Demineralization at the bracket / dental enamel interface was evaluated with fluorescence spectroscopy at 440 nm in 128 randomized premolars included in four separate groups of 32 teeth, which were divided into four subgroups. The laser fluorescence readings were performed in two steps: the first, before the teeth were placed in the solutions of their respective groups; and the second, after the surface treatments. The groups were divided as follows: Group 1 (untreated surface), Group 2 (six hours demineralization), Group 3 (demineralization 15 days) and Group 4 (demineralization 18 hours). The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis, Student-Newman-Keuls, Tukey and Spearman tests (p <0.05). The results showed a significant difference for all materials tested when the demineralization process was used, compared to the models using only six or 18 hours of demineralization. The fluorescence laser (440 nm) has an effective sensitivity in the detection of decalcification of dental enamel and in the development of early lesions of caries around orthodontic brackets.
1. Monte, Thiago L; Aranha Nouer, Paulo Roberto. More precision in expansion, more accuracy in retention. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, v. 151, p. 234-235, 2017.
2. Tiago, Carollyne Mota; Previdente, Luis; Nouer, Paulo Roberto Aranha. Molar intrusion with orthodontic mini-implants: Case reports. RGO. Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia (Online), v. 64, p. 327-332, 2016.
3. Queiroz, V S; Nouer, P R A; Tabchoury, C P M; Lima-Arsati, Y B O; Nouer, D F. In vivo evaluation of fluoride dentifrice and diet control on the demineralization/remineralization process using laser readouts at the margin of the orthodontic bracket/enamel interface. American Journal of Dentistry, v. 28, p. 23-27, 2015.
4. Lorenzi, Lígia Maria; Nouer, Darcy Flávio; Garbui, Ivana Uglik; Fontanella, Vânia; Padilha, Nelson; Nouer, Paulo Roberto Aranha. Wylie-Johnson analysis of adolescents of Afro-Brazilian descent with normal occlusion: investigation of the mean values. RGO. Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia (Online), v. 62, p. 13-17, 2014.
5. Ferreira, Fabiano G; Nouer, Darcy F; Silva, Nelson P; Garbui, Ivana U; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Nouer, Paulo R A. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of human dental enamel after bracket debonding: A noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry analysis. Clinical Oral Investigations (Internet), v. 18, p. 1853-1864, 2014.